Nodirbek Sayfullaev, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Professor
Rector of The National Institute of Fine Arts and Design
named after Kamoliddin Behzod (NIFAD)
Abstract: This article discusses the culture and traditions of the Uzbek people in the field of fashion and design. National dress is human beauty, an expression of national pride. It embodies a centuries-old history, ancient traditions, aesthetic views and characteristics of the people. The role of the national costume in the upbringing of the younger generation is unique, and the article is fully devoted to this issue. Our spiritual and material riches with a long history, all kinds of art, masterpieces of applied art are not exception.
Keywords: wall paintings, traditional clothes, ornament, archaeological object, constructive decision, historical manuscript, material, spiritual value, national pride, centuries-old history, ancient traditions, characteristics of people, national costume.
It is known that today in Uzbekistan, under the leadership of President Shavkat Mirziyoyev, huge reforms are being carried out. As our Leader says: “In today’s world, where the glorious power of our people is in full swing, it is true to say that a new awakening is being laid in Uzbekistan – the foundation of the Third Renaissance. Because today’s Uzbekistan is not as it was yesterday. Our people are not the same as they were yesterday».
In addition, under the attention of the President of Uzbekistan a number of reforms were carried out in all spheres, including culture, art and design. In particular, the presidential decrees “About the strategy of actions for further development of Uzbekistan”, “About measures for further development and improvement of culture and arts”, “About approval of Strategy of innovative development of Uzbekistan for 2019-2021” were adopted.
According to them, the revival of traditions of national costumes in the Republic, embroidery, goldsmithing, preservation of traditional culture, the formation and development of costume design in Uzbekistan, the spiritual and aesthetic features of national costumes, the definition of historical foundations, and the importance of implementing such significant priorities as the creation of modern design takes the specific national characteristics of historical and modern clothing into account.
The main findings and results
The abovementioned decrees pay special attention to the arts and design in order to increase the effectiveness of ongoing reforms, create conditions for the comprehensive and rapid development of the state and society, the implementation of priorities for modernization and liberalization of all spheres of life.
It should be noted that a great attention is paid to the preservation of our national values, customs and traditions, respect for the mentality of people formed over the centuries. Our spiritual and material riches with a long history, all kinds of art, masterpieces of applied art are not exception.
Moreover, from the first day the child perceives the world through the sense of sight, and the garment worn by the parents makes the first impression on him or her. Clothes, and not only, determine a person’s appearance, but also protect him from various external factors, one of them is a mental and physiological development of the child.
During the reign of Amir Temur (known as Tamerlane in the West) and the Temurid state, a great importance was attached to the culture of dress. Spanish ambassador Ruj González de Clavijo, who lived in the palace of Amir Temur, gave detailed historical information about it in his diary “Journey to Samarkand”.
During the 45 years of his life on horseback, Amir Temur carried his troops and their families, as well as skilled craftsmen, who sewed not only clothes, but also tents and grass to suit all seasons of the year. Clothing is not only a garment, but also the glory of the state, in which the world of applied art has developed to an unprecedented extent.
Looking at the unique clothes of Uzbek women and their jewelry, we can be sure that the art, culture and traditions of this nation are unique. It is precisely seen that these national costumes, our national jewelry, that today, as national traditions are being revived in Uzbekistan, it is important to understand them from a historical and aesthetic points of view, to know and study them.
Human’s appearance and clothing also show his or her intellectual potential. Each region of Uzbekistan has its own national costume. These dresses, which have been polished over the years, are uniquely sewn to the representatives of various industries with their fabric, colors, dress culture, small details. Depending on the dress, it was possible to distinguish a person as a scientist, a merchant or a palace servant. The national dress is a shining example of our cultural and spiritual richness passed down from generation to generation.
In recent years, design has become one of the most popular forms of art in Uzbekistan. This was due to the development of market relations, the growth of small and medium-sized businesses, the intensification of international relations, the informatization of society.
Improving the activities of educational institutions in the system of the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan on the basis of foreign experience to train highly qualified specialists in the field of fine and applied arts, design and folk crafts, a special emphasis is placed on strengthening international creative and scientific ties, promoting the achievements of our national art to the world community through large-scale exhibitions in Uzbekistan and abroad, holding conferences, biennials and other meetings.
Currently, the team of the National Institute of Fine Arts and Design named after Kamoliddin Behzod under the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan is also responsible for achieving these goals. The institute has a Faculty of Design, which has clothing and interior design department. The department of clothing design is based on the experience of foreign countries. Currently, the institute is a basic university in the country, which trains specialists in fashion design. The development of young artists and fashion designers at the Department of “Clothes Design” of this institute has led to the training of qualified personnel in the field, to further increase their artistic level. The department of clothing design at the institute rains specialists in the design and decoration of clothing and textiles. The department has a sewing laboratory equipped with special and universal equipment for practical training. Students majoring in clothing design are developing a collection of models in “couture” and “prêt-á-porter”.
There has been a shift away from minimalism in the work of designers, and usage of mixture of styles in the clothes they create has become a tradition. Ethnographic tones came into consumption. The use of elements of Uzbek applied art, such as bright decorations, meaningful dyes, embroidery on fabric, has become a feature of the collections of designers Lola Boboeva and L. Sayfi. They are in tune with modern fashion traditions. At the International Fashion Festival in Bishkek, L. Sayfi’s work won first place in the nomination “Ethnography in Fashion”.
Folk art is an integral part of national culture and is a factor that actively influences the formation of the artistic worldview and enriches professional art. Very few countries in the world have such a rich cultural heritage as Uzbekistan, many traditions: the diversity of forms, the uniqueness of the constructive-compositional solution, the beauty of all the elements in general, the uniqueness of charm and decoration, especially embroidery. All these is a world of great fun, an academy of new creative ideas and unique knowledge for professionals who create modern clothing.
The most correct way in the transformation of the features of folk costumes in the creation of a modern image is only a complete and in-depth study of the history of costumes. It should be noted that in our country, great attention is paid to the field of design, a lot of work is being done to train qualified personnel and raise our national industry to the level of modern requirements. Our young designers, who are developing in such a huge process, are making their contribution in it.
Our designers, who study the history of our national traditions in our country, enrich it in their work and create innovations, bring the national idea into the lives of young people through beauty. According to the designers, if our national fabrics are used in every home, even in a simple way, in everyday life, the younger generation will be brought up in the national spirit and the attitude to the work of our local craftsmen will change.
Today, the work of the country’s models cannot be imagined without folklore and ethnic trends. The cultural heritage of each nation has been a source of inspiration for designers. International trends have become an integral part of the work of many of our models. The idea of reviving traditional oriental dress has remained a major trend. As a result, the fashion designers worked on the idea of discovering new facets, inventing design methods, using national fabrics in the creation of copies of modern clothes. The development of various sets of clothes from local cotton fabrics, khonatlas, silk fabrics have been launched.
The researches of Uzbek designers on the originality of modern costumes are mainly based on the use of national fabrics, such as silk, khonatlas, beqasam and other domestically produced fabrics, gold embroidery, some sewing techniques, the costume complex were manifested in the introduction of gowns, skullcaps, turban hats, traditional jewelry. Of course, all this brings national elements to the costume, giving them charm and charm.
Young designers Saida Amir, Saodat Murodkhodjaeva, Marhamat Umarova, Madina Kasimbaeva, Nargiza Sherkhodjaeva, Nodira Arapova, Taisiya Chursina, Furqat Abdurahmonov, Nodira Botirova, Denis Tomilin and others presented their modern fashion in the national spirit have participated in many foreign exhibitions with their collections reflecting their views. In their works, they reflect the national school of design, inspired by the symbolism of ancient patterns, making effective use of folk decorative embroidery, floral prints on fabric, various national colors and rich ornamental motifs.
For young designers, history, national tradition is a wonderful theme, and through its various subtle changes, it is possible to constantly innovate. The history of Uzbek fabrics has always fascinated designers. Traditional patterns in applied art are intertwined, as if the example demonstrates the total beauty of life through colors and shapes. Inspired by a simple fragment of an ancient word, it finds a spark from the past, gives it a new shape and gives it a unique life by equipping it appropriately. Of course, rich national traditions of our country, beautiful nature, ancient architectural monuments and history of the motherland, exhibits in museums serve as the main source.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the national dress is a symbol of human beauty, national pride. It embodies the long history, ancient traditions, aesthetic views and peculiarities of the people. Nowadays, not only art critics, but also philosophers, culturologists, psychologists, sociologists and other experts are conducting researches on clothing and its role in society and expressing many opinions, because the dress of each epoch is manifested not only as the image of a man of a certain time, but also as the image of an entire society. National costumes created by young designers play an important role in shaping the aesthetic outlook and taste of the younger generation and serve as an educational tool.